lunes, 9 de enero de 2012

Managing White-Tailed Deer: Latin America


Publicación de capítulo en el libro: "Biology and Management of White-tailed Deer" por David G. Hewitt, CRC PressTaylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Fl, 2011


Latin America includes Mexico and Central and South America, with a great diversity of ecosystems and human cultures. Climate, elevation, soils, topography, vegetation, and wildlife are highly diverse, ranging from arid to tropical ecosystems. Language is one of the few characteristics common throughout Latin America; another commonality is the presence of the magnificent white-tailed deer, also known in Latin America as “venado cola blanca” and more than 30 other names in different indigenous dialects. Twenty-four subspecies of white-tailed deer have been reported in Latin America. The type of ecosystems and habitats occupied by deer in Mexico vary from the Sonoran desert in northwestern Mexico with 100 mm of annual precipitation, to the tropical rain forest in Chiapas with more than 3000 mm/year of rainfall. Morphological characteristics of white-tailed deer in Latin America also vary, from the majestic O. v. texanus subspecies with Boone and Crockett scores that can surpass 200 points to the beautiful

O.v. truei in Costa Rica with antler scores of less than 100 points at  maturity. Deer in Latin America have been an important game animal since pre-Columbian cultures; one of the 20 days of the Aztec calendar or sun stone was dedicated to the deer. The importance of deer for food, leather, and other products such as projectile points, bone scrapers, and needles has been reported by Méndez (1984) and more recently by Gallina et al. (2009).

Contents

Prominent Ecological Influences

Matorral Shrubs

Temperate Forests

Tropical Dry Forests

Tropical Evergreen or Rain Forests

South American Savannas

Andean Páramo


Mexico

·         Morphological Variation

·         White-Tailed Deer Diseases

·         Population Status

·         Land Use and Human Impacts

·         Habitat Management

·         Traditional Practices

·         Active Habitat Management

·         Habitat Evaluation Procedures

·         Management Issues and Trends

·         History and Legislation of White-Tailed Deer Management

·         Traditional Use

·         UMA Model

·         Status and Conservation Areas


Costa Rica

·         Geographic Description of Region

·         Morphological Variation

·         Prominent Ecological Influences

·         Predators

·         Health

·         Population Status

·         Land Use and Human Impacts

·         Fire Effects and Management

·         Habitat Use and Evaluation

·         Management Issues and Trends

·         Importance in Costa Rica

·         Conservation and Management Efforts

·         Translocation and Reintroduction Efforts


Colombia and Venezuela

·         Morphological Variation

·         Population Status

·         Management Issues and Trends

·         Traditional Use

·         White-Tailed Deer in Captivity

·         Conservation Status

·         Research Needs
  
 References

Cita del trabajo:

 
ORTEGA, A., S. MANDUJANO, J. VILLARREAL, M. I. DiMARI, H. LÓPEZ-AREVALO, M. CORREA y M. MOLINA. 2011. White-tailed deer in Latin America. Pp. 565-597, In: D. Hewitt (ed.), Biology and Management of White-Tailed Deer, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Fl. ISBN: 978-1-4398-0651-7

 
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